When available, IQ data were collected. ACT Assessment. Learning Environment Inventory. National Center for Biotechnology InformationU. The screening and diagnosis of autistic spectrum disorders. Details of the methodology are described elsewhere [ 35 ].
As mentioned previously, ASD females are more likely to present with comorbid intellectual disability, but they are also more likely to be comorbid for sensory issues, seizures, sleep disturbances, anxiety, and depression [ — ]. Likewise, autistic individuals should score lower on the EQ than typical males, who do not perform as well as typical females [ 58 ].
The extreme male brain revisited: gender coherence in adults with autism spectrum disorder. Animal studies have found related results. This difference was also found among individuals with typical cognitive functioning [ 3031 ].
Thus, females currently included in studies like this one may be those with autistic trait profiles that are closest to the prototypical male profile of ASD. Data from health sources included evaluations performed by psychologists, developmental pediatricians, neurologists, and psychiatrists, and scores were from behavioral, adaptive, and cognitive evaluations and tests.
Additional studies using a larger sample size and alternative measures of autistic symptoms and developmental functioning are also needed to increase confidence in findings from this study. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 18— Trends Cogn. Evaluation of a methodology for a collaborative multiple source surveillance network for autism spectrum disorder: Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring Network, 14 Sites, United States, Neurobiol ; [ PubMed ].
This represents a 2- to 3-year delay from the manifestation of symptoms of ASD to the time of first documented ASD classification for children who were 8 years old in born in Two older studies reported that females with autism manifested lower IQs than males and ID occurred in higher percentages of girls with autism than in boys [ 8 , 29 ].
Pittsburg: Psychology Software Tools Inc. The scheme for coding descriptors also included noting the presence of developmental delays before 36 months of age, developmental regression or developmental plateau, each of the DSM-IV criteria for ASDs, and diagnoses noted in developmental evaluations.
Furthermore, diagnosis of an ASD by a qualified professional remains relatively stable from 2 years to middle childhood [ 17 , 18 ].