Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology — Nevertheless, in a predominantly monogamous population seahorse sex role reversal biology in Henderson a slight bias is likely to have pronounced effects on the reproductive success of excess individuals, because they will be unable to find mates.
Since the inclusion of mated females in the unmated group may have masked greater phenotypic differences between the groups, our study is likely to provide a conservative estimate of the strength of sexual selection in this population. Alfred A. These females are treated as unmated, although they could have mothered some of the broods of the 11 males we failed to sample successfully.
Tomkins JL, Simmons LW Measuring relative investment: a case study of testes investment in species with alternative male reproductive tactics.
A, Reynolds J. For each sex, z 1 solid vertical line is the mean head length of all mated and unmated individuals and seahorse sex role reversal biology in Henderson 2 dotted vertical line is the mean head length of mated ones.
Nevertheless, frequency-dependent selection should maintain a sex ratio at birth near equality, assuming male and female offspring are equally costly to produce. Mating experiments are currently being used to determine whether MH-odor cues are used in mate choice decisions in H.
Pills are cheaper and more available than traditional, individually tailored prescriptions of whole seahorses, but the contents are harder to track.
Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B — Borsay, G. Zar, J. Funct Ecol — M, Morton E. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.
In fact, our value 0. Parental investment and sexual selection, p. Wong , and S. Yet, the fact that our data show a consistent female bias over several years suggests that we must seek other explanations to our observed adult sex ratios. Published : 24 December Zar, J.