Current Issue Back Issues Subscribe. When HIV is not suppressed by antiretroviral treatment, vaginal intercourse without a condom is a highly efficient route of HIV transmission because high concentrations of HIV can occur in semen and vaginal fluids, and because the genital tissues are very susceptible to infection.
Based on the meta-analysis estimates, 1 we can draw several conclusions:. Journal of Infectious Diseases 5 If these numbers are provided to clients, they should be accompanied by information that helps shed light on why the risk may be higher than it seems.
A meta-analysis of studies of heterosexual HIV transmission found that, in high-income countries prior to the introduction of combination therapy, the risk per sexual act was 0. Schistosomiasis is associated with incident HIV transmission and death in Zambia.
The strongest evidence is for herpes simplex virus type 2 HSV Receptive anal sex is riskier than insertive anal sex. Estimating per-act HIV transmission risk: a systematic review.
JAMA, 2 One time unprotected sex hiv contraction in Wichita, uncircumcised men may be more vulnerable to sexually transmitted infections STIsbecause the area under the foreskin can retain bacteria acquired during sex, thus increasing the chance that an infection will become established. Secondly, immune cells that are, themselves, prone to HIV infection — such as activated T-cells and dendritic cells — are prone to be present in greater numbers at the site of an infection.
Trichomonas vaginalis and HIV infection acquisition: a systematic review and meta-analysis. The surgical removal of the foreskin of the penis the retractable fold of tissue that covers the head of the penis to reduce the risk of HIV infection in men.
This allows the virus to reach the inner vaginal lining, which is rich in immune cells through which it can establish systemic infection. The chances of infection may be lessened during condomless vaginal intercourse if ejaculation does not take place.
A meta-analysis exploring the risk of HIV transmission through unprotected anal sex was published in In a Kenyan study , bacterial vaginosis and HSV-2 infection were the two strongest risk factors measured for HIV acquisition over a year period Masese.
Receptive anal sex is riskier than insertive anal sex. Holmberg SD et al Biologic factors in the sexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus.