Amphibians and reptiles: Most amphibians exhibit GSD and possess homomorphic sex-determining chromosomes E ggert Ichikawa and K. Armstrong and D. The Quarterly Review of Biology. In Megaselia scalaristhere are no heteromorphic sex chromosomes T raut et al.
A cytonuclear incompatibility causes anther sterility in Mimulus hybrids.
Other unusual systems include those of the swordtail fish [ clarification needed ] ;  the Chironomus midges [ clarification needed ] [ citation needed ] ; the juvenile hermaphroditism of zebrafishwith an unknown trigger;  and the platyfishwhich has W, X, and Y chromosomes.
These genes reduce male gene activation and increase it, respectively. Most fruit flies are a yellowish brown, or tan, color. Main article: Haplodiploidy. Additionally, look for bristles on the fly's forelegs, which is a sign it's a male. Males do have a few stripes, but these stripes meld together and become dark toward the back of the abdomen, giving then a darker color.
Genetic control of sex need not be complete—in many organisms, environmental conditions, experimental treatments, or the genetic background, can affect the phenotypic sex of individuals. Toriba, K. These species therefore hold promise for testing the hypothesis that sexually antagonistic genes have driven selection for reduced X—Y recombination see Figure 1 and below.
Shinomiya, T. Weber, To arrive at the top five similar articles we use a word-weighted algorithm to compare words from the Title and Abstract of each citation.
Invertebrates: GSD is found in many invertebrate taxa, and male heterogamety is widespread, although female heterogamety is documented in schistosomes Platyhelminthes T aguchi et al. Araripe, P. Shima, J.