The over-stimulation of the sympathetic system protection system creates the onus for these damaged smooth muscle fibers and is referred to as a trigger point. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
Muscle pathologies such as neck aches, backaches, and headaches are definitely more predominant in females. Unique to mammals, the temporomandibular joint TMJ is a synovial joint located at the site of articulation between the mandible and cranial base.
Further complicating the migraine experience of women is that females exhibit greater sensitivity to laboratory pain as compared to males. Cluster headache—course over ten years in patients. An increase in stimulus causes an increase in reactivity of the pain system occurring each month.
Phase-contrast images showing morphology of cultured immortalized TMJ lateral disc A cells and central disc B cells. Miao et al. Overview of orofacial pain: epidemiology and gender differences in orofacial pain. In this study we propose three specific aims; 1 to determine the extent that estrogen decreases PRG4 expression in female and male baboon TMJ cells and TMJ organotypic cultures.
PRG4 has been shown to be the major lubricating component of synovial joints by providing anti-adhesive properties to the surfaces it is in contact with and inhibiting synovial overgrowth that can impede joint mobility 1833 —
U S A 90— Animal studies corroborate the hormone-dependency of this effect since estrogen replacement therapy in male or ovariectomized OVX female rats increases excitability of neurons innervating the TMJ and also increases the magnitude of glutamate-evoked jaw muscle nociception Cairns et al.
Sex steroid regulation of the inflammatory response: sympathoadrenal dependence in the female rat. Behav Sci. To determine if ERE consensus sequences were present in species other than human, the promoters from human, chimpanzee, orangutan, marmoset and gibbon were aligned using the transcription factor binding site prediction algorithm, ClustalW2.
Primary and secondary adrenal insufficiency result in severely decreased glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids, but ACTH levels are elevated in primary and decreased in secondary diseases. Goleman, D. Pituitary 14 , — Armen N.